Produced from 2 main producers, namely the mine of the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) and the mine of Private companies, EGAT’s mines consist of production from Mae Moh Mine, Lampang Province, and from Krabi Mine.
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All of the lignite produced from Mae Moh Mine will be used to generate electricity at Mae Moh Power Plant. The lignite produced from the Krabi mine will be used in the industrial sector. The Krabi mine ceased production in 2008. Lignite production from private mines is currently slowing down. Because the major concessions in the country are gradually exhausted. Most of the lignite produced from private mines is used in industrial sectors such as cement, paper, food and textiles, etc. About 50 percent of coal is used to fuel power plants and about 50 percent is used. in industrial plants
Pollution problems from using coal
Coal is a highly polluting energy source, oil and very natural gas The use of coal brings environmental, human and social impacts such as
1) cause sickness and death
2) damage things and natural resources
3) Destroy the environment and living things.
4) Pollution in soil, water and air
Note: The word coal, if used casually, usually refers to good quality coal. The term lignite usually refers to low quality coal.
Coal, although both less polluted and highly polluted types , is what the world uses to generate electricity. for the people of the world to use as much as possible As for energy that is accepted to have less environmental problems, such as wind power, hydropower, underground heat. There are some used as well, but very rarely. This is because this kind of energy is so small. and the price is still expensive. The strange thing is that although nuclear power plants will not be accepted by the public, globally, it uses up to 20 percent of electricity.
Coal is the fuel that many countries choose to use to generate electricity because
– cheap price
– The price rarely changes.
– Procurement or purchase is quite certain. Because there are many sources for sale distributed in different regions
Oil comes from the remains of animals and plants that have been dead for millions of years. and accumulated underground During that time there was a natural chemical change. until the remains of those animals are transformed into crude oil, coal, natural gas, etc., so we call this type of fuel fossil fuel.
Because living cells contain the element hydrogen. and carbon elements When non-living things die, these remains of plants and animals will not disappear. But there will be physical and chemical changes to become new substances that have different characteristics such as oil, natural gas, coal or others, depending on the type of remains and the environment that occurs. Although the remains of animal remains have changed, however. But the initial elements are hydrogen and carbon. It will remain in the same state, so oil, natural gas, and coal still have hydrogen. and carbon Is the main component intact
2.5 Crude Oil Sources in Thailand
development of Thailand’s petroleum resources
In 1888 Thailand started using petroleum for the first time. In the reign of King Chulalongkorn by starting to import kerosene for the first time from Russia
In 1892, the use of petroleum increased in line with the growth of the village. The first oil company was established, the Royal Dutch Shell Transport and Trading Company.
In 1921, the first exploration for oil fields began and two years later Found the first oil field in Thailand at Fang District, Chiang Mai Province. However, it was not immediately developed. Until 1947 – 1956, there was additional exploration drilling. and can produce approximately 20 barrels of crude oil per day. The crude oil produced is used as asphalt. not long after It has been seriously produced. Along with refining at the oil refinery built in that field
1959 opened the opportunity for foreign companies to explore for petroleum resources in the country for the first time and
The first is Union Oil Company of the United States.
1968 A new era in petroleum exploration begins. When the government allowed private companies to explore and produce petroleum under the Minerals Act B.E. 2510
1971 for efficient petroleum operations Therefore, the Petroleum Act was promulgated. and the Petroleum Income Tax Act. To be the main law controlling petroleum exploration and production of the concessionaire.
Until 2002, the government by the Department of Mineral Resources Ministry of Industry has announced inviting oil companies to apply for petroleum exploration and production concessions 18 times. The exploration results have found 55 petroleum fields, both onshore and offshore, with assessable reserves as follows:
In 2007, there were 213,408 barrels of crude oil and condensate produced in Thailand, an increase of 4.5% from 1997, accounting for 21% of Thailand’s crude oil supply. The largest source of production is chrysanthemum. (in the middle of the Gulf of Thailand), accounting for 31% of the total amount of crude oil produced in the country. Followed by the Unocal source. (in the middle of the Gulf of Thailand) 29 percent, Sirikit field (Lan Krabue district, Kamphaeng Phet province) 15 percent, Jamin field (in the middle of the Gulf of Thailand) 14 percent, and the rest are other sources 11 percent.